Car accidents are not something that we like to think about too much, but they do happen and that is why it’s important that all drivers are aware of the steps that they need to take if they are ever unfortunate enough to be involved in a road traffic accident.
So if you are unsure about what your responsibilities are following a car crash, follow this handy checklist so that you react in the right way in what will be a stressful time…..
We love cars, hence why we have this cool cars blog to share our passion.
One of the most popular questions we are often asked is what can you do to make your car go faster. Well, to help answer this, here are 10 tips to enhance you cars performance:
1. Install An Air Induction System
Your car gets its power by mixing air with fuel, and then burning it to produce horsepower. The more cool and dense air that your engine can pull in, the more power it will produce, and the faster your car will drive. An air induction system allows the engine to pull in more cool air. This system is bolted directly onto the car and can be installed in one afternoon.
2. Upgrade To An Electric Fan
The fan is needed to draw air through the radiator to keep your vehicle’s engine cool. Most older cars come with a mechanical fan that uses the engine’s power and a fan belt to run. These fans draw in a significantly large amount of horsepower from the engine, which will prevent your vehicle from driving faster. Replace the mechanical fan with an aftermarket electric fan to free up some of that horsepower so you can drive your car faster.
3. Upgrade Your Carburetor
A carburetor mixes gasoline and air together so it becomes a vapor that can be burned inside the engine. It’s typically found on older vehicles. Newer cars and trucks are equipped with fuel injection, and don’t have a carburetor under the hood. A great way to increase the speed of your vehicle is to upgrade from a 2-barrel carburetor to a 4-barrel carburetor. When you make this upgrade, you’ll also have to install a new intake manifold. It can be a little expensive to make this upgrade, but the increase in speed will be very noticeable.
4. Convert To An Electric Fuel Pump
Mechanical fuel pumps are known to rob power from a car’s engine, thus not allowing a vehicle to reach it’s optimum speed. When you convert to an electric fuel pump, more power will reach your drive wheels and your car will go faster. Keep in mind that an electric fuel pump and fan will draw extra power from your batter and alternator, so you’ll want to upgrade those also.
5. Tune the Racechip
Tuning the racechip in your vehicle will make it accelerate faster, provide safer overtaking, and has a more direct response as you maneuver your car. When the Racechip is removed, all the software remains in place but there is no evidence left behind.
6. Convert To Fuel Injection
If you have a 4-barrel carburetor but your car still isn’t fast enough, you can always upgrade to fuel injection. Since fuel injection is electronic and not mechanical, it is more precise. Your car will have better fuel economy and your car’s engine will have more horsepower.
7. Improve Exhaust System Efficiency
The way exhaust leaves your vehicle’s engine is just as important as getting more air and fuel into the engine, when you’re looking at ways to increase performance and speed. One thing you can do is replace the exhaust manifolds with “Headers” to improve the weakest link in the exhaust system. Don’t install a second tail pipe on your car unless you also install a second catalytic converter. The only way to see better performance is to have a true dual exhaust system. Just make sure you check with the local laws because most areas have rules governing the amount of noise a vehicle can produce. These laws include specific information about removing catalytic converters.
8. Install A Turbo Charger
Turbo chargers are stock on most diesel engines, but they can also be used on gasoline engines to improve performance. This upgrade will also require you to modify the exhaust system and air intake system, so it can get pricey and can be time consuming. 9. Add Nitrous Oxide To Your Air And Fuel
Adding nitrous oxide to the air and fuel mixture inside your car’s engine makes it more explosive and significantly increases horsepower. You can get a NOS system for any type of car or truck. If you’re looking a big punch, then choose a NOS system that has several different points that inject nitrous oxide into the intake manifold. Make sure you are familiar with the laws surrounding nitrous oxide in your state.
10. Install A Supercharger
A supercharger compresses the air fuel mixture to make it denser, and then basically shoves it down the engine’s throat. The installation of a supercharger will instantly add a huge amount of power to your engine in an instant. They also look pretty impressive, since traditional superchargers stick out of the hood. There are several different types of superchargers to fit all types of engines. Some are so powerful, they can only be used on V-8 engines. Today, there are even low-profile superchargers that stay nicely tucked away under the hood. There are many laws surrounding superchargers, so make sure you can legally install one in your vehicle before you buy one.
It seems that counter-rotating vortices are everywhere. The September 2014 edition of the Proceedings of the (US) National Academy of Sciences has published a fascinating study which reveals that coral reefs actively create quasi-steady arrays of counter-rotating vortices.
Corals exist in a symbiotic relationship with algae, which live within the tissue of the coral, and photosynthesise the organic carbon used by the corals to build their calcium-carbonate skeletons. In return, the corals have to provide nutrients for the algae, and remove the excess oxygen produced by photosynthesis.
Until now, it’s been assumed that corals were dependent upon molecular diffusion alone to achieve the necessary mass transport. A concentration boundary layer exists at the surface of the coral: the concentration of a molecular species produced by the coral (such as molecular oxygen, O2) is highest at the surface of the coral, and a concentration gradient exists in the direction normal to the surface of the coral until the edge of the boundary layer is reached, where the concentration matches the ambient level. This concentration gradient drives outward molecular diffusion.
In the presence of an ambient flow, the boundary layer becomes thinner, increasing the steepness of the concentration gradient, and thereby enhancing the mass transfer rate. However, many parts of many coral reefs often experience periods of very low ambient flow, and there was evidence to believe that mass transfer rates were actually higher than could be explained by the ambient flow conditions. (Here there is a similarity with heat transfer within a bundle of nuclear fuel rods, where the rate of thermal mixing was higher than could be explained by turbulent diffusion and thermal conduction alone).
The research just published has revealed that the cilia (tiny hairlike entities) on the surface of the coral polyps are able to create a pattern of counter-rotating vortices which enhance mass transfer rates even in conditions of stagnant ambient flow (see image below). The counter-rotating vortices seem to be produced by the coordinated sweeping motion of the cilia, with one group of cilia sweeping in direction, and another group sweeping in the opposite direction.
The research revealed that the vortices are able to transport dissolved molecules by ~1mm in ~1sec, under conditions which would otherwise require ~1000secs to traverse the same distance by molecular diffusion alone.
It was also found that the location and shape of one such vortex was stable over the 90min period under which the concentration levels of oxygen were measured. The latter produced the image below, showing that one side of the vortex, flowing towards the surface of the coral, had ambient levels of oxygen, whilst the other side of the same vortex transports the oxygenated water away.
The fissile fuel in a commercial nuclear reactor is typically packaged into rods, which are collected together in arrays and placed within vertical cylindrical channels (as seen below for the case of the UK’s Advanced Gas-Cooled reactor design). The coolant flows through the vertical channels, and the heat generated by fission is transferred from the surface of the fuel rods to the coolant. The efficiency and safety of the reactor therefore depends upon the efficiency with which the heat is transferred from the surface of the solid elements to the fluid flow. It is well-known that turbulent mixing enhances the efficiency of the heat transfer, and this is duly utilised within reactor design.
One of the requirements of reactor design is to homogenise the cross-channel temperature distribution, from one fuel rod to another, and it was noted in the 1960s that there was a greater degree of cross-channel heat transfer within a bundle of fuel rods than could be accounted for by turbulent diffusion alone.
The geometry created by the bundle of rods is rather differerent from a simple channel-flow problem. Taking a cross-section through a vertical channel, one has a collection of solid discs, each of which is separated from its nearest neighbour by a specified gap. The packing of adjacent cylindrical fuel elements creates a network of sub-channels, joined together by the gaps (see diagram below from A Keshmiri, Three-dimensional simulation of a simplified Advanced Gas-Cooled reactor fuel element, 2011). The coolant naturally flows in an axial direction through both the gaps and the sub-channels.
Experimental work noted that there was cross-channel heat transfer taking place through the gaps between sub-channels. For more than 20 years, it was thought that this heat transfer could be explained by ‘secondary flow’. In a turbulent channel flow, the anisotropy of the turbulent stresses induce a component to the mean velocity flow-field which lies in a plane normal to the primary streamwise flow. Unfortunately, the magnitude of this secondary flow was way too small to explain the magnitude of the observed cross-channel mixing.
Only in recent decades has it been realised that the cross-channel mixing is due to a train of periodic vortices created in the sub-channels. The continual passage of these vortices creates a quasi-periodic cross-channel flow pulsation at particular stations along the bundle of fuel-rods. Steady-state CFD studies revealed nothing more than a turbulent channel flow pattern, and completely failed to represent the mixing of the coolant between adjacent sub-channels.
The cross-channel mixing was casued by an unsteady flow pattern which was smeared away in steady-state CFD, yet the coherent vortical structures make a contribution to the thermal mixing which has the same order of magnitude as that from the turbulent diffusion.
The exact mechanism responsible for the creation of this vortex train is not yet fully understood. The basic idea, however, is that the fluid flow is slower in the gaps between the fuel rods than it is in the larger sub-channels, and this creates a shear layer. The shear layer is intrinsically unstable, and breaks up into a train of vortices, in a manner possibly similar to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Adjacent sub-channels inherit counter-rotating vortices, so the patterns are not dissimilar to those of a von Karman vortex street shed behind a bluff body (see diagram below from T Krauss and L Meyer, Experimental investigation of turbulent transport of momentum and energy in a heated rod bundle. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 180:185–206, 1998).
Note, however, that the vortex train in the bundle of fuel rods is not created by separation, as such. Rather, it is the result of the instability of the shear layers within the interior of the fluid. It is ultimately the geometrical configuration of the fuel rods which creates the unsteady flow pattern, and indeed the cross-channel pulsations are seen to vary as the gap between the fuel elements, and the diameter of the fuel elements, are varied.
The message is clear: even in the absence of separation, be very wary of steady-state CFD…
The September 2014 issue of Motorsport Magazine contains an interesting article in which Adrian Newey discusses his favourite F1 cars. For disciples of modern F1 aero design, however, two statements catch the attention.
With respect to the 2009 Red Bull RB5, Adrian remarks that “we had a really great design group. We did some good research, understood the flow physics and the packaging.” Then, recalling the research conducted for the exhaust-blown area around the spat on the 2011 RB7, Newey states that “it was very clear that the area around the rear tyres was critical…Then the whole research started developing…from steady-state CFD to tyre-dependent CFD and we worked with Renault to understand how the pulsing and acoustics of the exhaust worked.”
This suggests that the recent aerodynamic success of the Red Bull has been based upon using unsteady CFD to understand the flow physics in that complex area around the spat. When the car pitches and rolls, not only does the rear ride-height change, but the rear tyre sidewall deforms, and given the sensitivity of the flow in the spat area, this sidewall deflection can crucially affect the performance of the diffuser.
The phrase ‘tyre-dependent CFD’ could, in isolation, merely imply that a set of steady CFD simulations were conducted, each representing a different degree of roll. However, by placing this phrase in opposition to ‘steady-state CFD’, it implies that Red Bull conducted unsteady CFD simulations which represented the roll of the car, including the time-evolution of the tyre sidewall profile.
Having said that, even if the solid geometry remains fixed, there is ample reason to believe that unsteady CFD simulations are indispensable for understanding the flow physics of a Formula 1 car.
Steady-state CFD generates time-averaged images of the flow, and these can be misleading, both because they smear away time-dependent fluctuations in the flow, but also because the time-averaging procedure sometimes generates fictional flow structures which don’t actually exist in the any of the instantaneous flow fields.
The image on the left, taken from Jacques Heyder-Bruckner‘s PhD research on wing-wheel interaction, vividly illustrates how the time-averaged image (top) smears away much of the structure associated with the breakdown of a front-wing endplate vortex (bottom).
The fictional potential of steady-state CFD is exemplified by the common wisdom used to explain the function of a Gurney flap. This claims that there is a stable, counter-rotating vortex pair formed behind the Gurney. As a case in point, the All-American Racers website proffers the following explanation:
“At the trailing edge, the airflow immediately beneath the wing rolls into a small anti-clockwise vortex behind the Gurney. Immediately above this, a second small vortex, rotating in the opposite direction, is formed by the airflow traveling above the wing as it passes over the gurney’s lip. together these two vortices form a small separation bubble – a rotating mass of air removed from the main flow – which is somewhat taller overall than the gurney itself.
In clearing this separation bubble, the airflow’s vertical deflection is increased and hence downforce increases. Additionally, separation of airflow from the wing’s lower surface is postponed, allowing a higher angle of attack to be used before stall, which further enhances the wing’s effectiveness.”
In reality, there is no such stable vortex pair. Research conducted by David Jeffrey and David Hurst at the turn of the century established that the flow behind a Gurney is intrinsically unsteady, consisting of the continual alternate shedding of discrete vortices, which convect downstream (see the PIV images below, obtained by Jonathan Zerihan, which depict the vorticity contours associated with a Gurney flap in ground-effect at four different ride-heights). The process is not dissimilar to that associated with the von Karman vortex street behind a bluff body:
“The first stage in this shedding cycle begins as the separating shear layer on one side of the body rolls up to form a vortex. As it does so, it draws the separating shear layer over from the other side of the body. This second shear layer contains vorticity of opposing sign, and as it crosses the wake centerline it cuts off the supply of vorticity to the shear layer that is rolling up. At this point, the vortex is shed and moves downstream, while the shear layer on the opposite side starts to roll up, repeating the process.
With the Gurney flap the offsurface edge provides a fixed separation point for the pressure-surface shear layer, and this interacts with that separating from the suction surface to form a vortex street, in a manner similar to other bluff bodies.“
To understand the flow physics in such circumstances, it necessary to compile a sequence of instantaneous flow images, (a storyboard, if you will). Studying the frozen and often fictional images generated by steady-state CFD simply doesn’t cut the mustard.